Department of Sociology

Department of Sociology


Degree Program

Contact Information



  • social planner / community organizer
  • project coordinator
  • interview / survey facilitator
  • social development worker
  • media consultant
  • statistician
  • concept analyst
  • public administrator
  • administrative assistant

What to do after finishing a sociology degree is always a question for many, most still find assurance on whether taking the degree will give them a good career, and most importantly, a stable source of income. Its status as a profession has been largely presupposed. For example during the 2012 National Conference of Philippine Sociological Society, researchers gathered to talk and try to solve the problem regarding sociology’s professional boundaries which revolves around the conference’s central theme: “sociologists as professionals” (Rafael 2014). Meanwhile Randolf "Randy" David argues that sociology is already a professionalized one (Rafael 2014). 

Sociology has been a forefront in examining the organization and practices of professional life. Sociologist Julia Evetts, in her comprehensive study on sociological research on professional groups, observed that the history of development in the said field revolves around three concepts: professional. professionalism, and professionalization (2011). The concept of profession is primarily concerned with the nature of the profession itself. It acknowledges the prominence of the profession's knowledge and its sought of finding traits that makes a profession distinct from other occupations (Rafael 2014). Therefore we are to say the same on sociology: that is a profession which can be identified and applied to various work occupations in the society. 

The discipline of sociology is diverse and not well-defined. Because of this flexibility, Sociology can be incorporated to almost every discipline, from social sciences to health, communication to sports etc. Sociological practice encompassess wide range of “expertise”, which include social research, policy analysis, social development work, social mobilization, and policy research among the few (Rafael 2014). This generality of expertise from sociologists leads to situations where sociology graduates are expected by educational institutions to teach non-sociology subjects like logic, philosophy, history and economics (Rafael 2014). Meanwhile, sociology has established its “market” on academic research, and that the discipline developed its own self-inferential jargon as seen from the works published by Philippine Sociological Review  (Rafael 2014). 

On that note, Randolf David has described professionalization as the discipline’s promotion of “a particular way of talking, a jargon, a scholasticism,” and the insistence on relation sociological research outputs to an imagined universal thread of sociological thought (David 2001), which further supports the idea that sociology is indeed a profession because of the skills and knowledge required to be able to analyze, interpret, and understand cultures and establish norms in both the society and institution. 

However, in the Philippine setting, sociology remains to be an academic discipline as it currently does not have a professional code of conduct for it to be formalized. Erwin Rafael has compared sociology, an academic discipline, with accountancy which is more practice-based and has concluded that sociology-centered norms and values are not workable profession-wise (Rafael 2014). Nonetheless, this does not stop sociology from being a profession as it continues to contribute to the production, interpretation, understanding, and application of knowledge to solve society’s conflicts and issues.


Kung anong gagawin pagkatapos ng pagkuha ng diploma sa sosyolohiya ay tanong ng marami. Lahat ay naghahanap ng katiyakan na ang diplomang nakuha ay makapagbibigay ng magandang trabaho at maayos na pangita. Ang lugar ng sosyolohiya bilang isang propesyon ay palaging kinukwestiyon, halimabwa noong 2012 National Conference ng Philippine Sociological Society, nagtipon ang mga mananaliksik para pag-usapan at bigyang solusyon ang problema patungkol sa “hangganan” ng propesyon ng sosyolohiya na naka-angkla sa tema ng komprensya: “mga sosyolohista bilang mga propesyonal” (Rafael 2014). Samantala, ayon kay Randy David, ang sosyolohiya ay ganap nang gawaing propesyonal (Rafael 2014).

Ang sosyolohiya ang palaging nangunguna pagdating sa pagkilatis ng mga organisasyon at praktika ng propesyonal na buhay. Ayon kay Julia Evetts sa kanyang pag-aaral patungkol sa sosyolohikal na pananaliksik sa mga grupong propesyonal, naobserbahan niya sa kasaysayan ng pagusbong ng naturang disiplina ang tatlong konsepto: propsesyonal, pagka-propesyonal, at gawain propesyonal (2011). Ang konsepto ng propesyon ay pangunahing nakatuon sa katangian ng mismong propesyon. Kinikilala nito ang kaalaman ng disiplina at ang paghanap nito ng mga indibidwal na katangian na naghihiwalay rito sa ibang disiplina (Rafael 2014). Kung gayon ay makikita natin na katulad nito, ang sosyolohiya ay isang propesyon kung saan maaring maiangkla sa iba’t ibang trabaho sa lipunan.

Ang disiplina ng sosyolohiya ay malawak. Dahil sa kakayahan nito angkop sa lahat, ang sosyolohiya ay maaaring isama sa ibang disiplina mula agham panlipunan at medisina, komunikasyon at palaro. Ang praktika ng sosyolohiya ay maraming maituturing na larangan ng kadalubhasaan, kabilang na rito ang panlipunan pananaliksik at pagtatasa ng patakaran (Rafael 2014). Ang lawak ng kadalubhasaan na ito ng sosyolohiya ay madalas na nagiging dahilan ng generalisasyon na ang mga sosyolohista ay inaasahang ng mga akademikong institusyon na magturo ng mga asignaturang walang kinalaman sa disiplina. Samantala, naitatag ng sosyolohiya ang sarili nitong “merkado” sa pananaliksik na makikita natin sa mga gawang inilathala ng mga sosyolohista sa Philippine Sociological Society (Rafael 2014).

Inilarawan naman ni Randolf David ang professionalization bilang promosyon ng disiplina ng “partikular na pamamaraan ng pagsasalita, jargon, iskolarismo,” at ang paggigiit sa kaugnayan ng sosyolohikang pananaliksik na output sa ipinalalagay na unibersal na sosyolohikang pag-iisip (David 2001) na higit pang sumusuporta sa ideyang ang sosyolohiya ay isang tunay na propesyon dahil sa kasanayan at kaalamang kailangan upang masuri, magbigay kahulugan, at intindihin ang mga kultura at magtatag ng mga pamantayan sa lipunan at sa institusyon.

Ngunit, ang sosyolohiya ay nananatiling isang pang-akademikong disiplina sa Pilipinas sa kadahilanang wala itong professional code of conduct upang ito ay ganap na gawing pormal. Ikinumpara ni Erwin Rafael ang sosyolohiya na isang pang-akademikong disiplina sa accountancy na batay sa kasanayan at naghinuha na ang mga pamantayan at prinsipyong nakasentro sa sosyolohiya ay hindi praktikal para sa isang propesyon (Rafael 2014). Gayunpaman, hindi ito makapipigil sa sosyolohiya sa pagiging isang propesyon sapagkat patuloy ito tumutulong sa produksyon, interpretasyon, pag-unawa, at aplikasyon ng kaalaman upang malutas ang mga salungatan at isyu ng lipunan.


Batan, Clarence and Francis Lyn Samaco. 2013. “More Than 100 Years of Sociology ? A Historical Reconstruction of the Teaching of Sociology at the University of Santo Tomas.” Philippine Sociological Review 61(1):123–146. Retrieved April 3, 2020.

David, Randolf. 2001. De-professionalizing Sociology.  Reflections on Sociology and Philippine Society. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.

Erwin, Rafael. 2014. Is Sociology in the Philippines a Professionalized Discipline? Pp. 213-236 in Erwin, Rafael. Philippine Sociological Review. Philippine Sociological Society.

Missouri State Sociology Program. 2020. Retrieved.

Palafox, Q., 2012. Asia’s Oldest University, The Royal And Pontifical University Of Santo Tomas National Historical Commission Of The Philippines. [online] National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved.

Steele, Stephen and Jammie Price. 2008. “Making a Difference with Sociology.” Pp. 125–32 in Applied Sociology: Terms, Topics, and tasks. Thomson Wadsworth.

University of Santo Tomas. 2018. Student Handbook. Revised.

University of Santo Tomas. (2016). Bachelor of Arts in Sociology (4 years). Retrieved from University of Santo Tomas: 

Weightman, George H. 1987. “SOCIOLOGY IN THE PHILIPPINES.” International Review of Modern Sociology 17(1):35–62. Retrieved April 3, 2020.

Contact Information

Research Agenda

The study and research about the link between the social living conditions of youth, situation of education and employment opportunities in the Philippines; within the underlying functions of work and educational institutions as society’s forces development.

An approach that integrates social science with the health discipline which also concerns family relationships. This sociology is interdisciplinary so the combined lenses widen the scope of issues tackled, for when the illnesses are studied, it focuses not only on finding solutions or cure but also analyzes the effects directed on the society, the root causes of why the people experience health-related concerns which then transform into social issues.  Distinctively, Family Studies concerns on studying the human behavior patterns, change and development of its members and how the interaction affects the society beyond homes.  

This research agenda includes the field of sociology, history and political science with studies about policy-making, legal procedures, spectrum-orientation and governance system. The approach is complex since the scope starts from the grassroot level of society, involving not just the people but also the political system and the practices implemented by the governing bodies existing at a certain point of history, specifically, the Philippine contemporary era. 

As other universities offer specializations on Sociology of Religion, the UST BA Sociology program also directs its attention on Sociology of Catholicism as a perspective to study about Catholic institutions, religious authorities and its belief system’s effects on the living situation on communities and parishes which creates diverse living conditions that leads to studying various Pastoral Issues that stems from the historical backgrounds and present religious cultures and practices, 

Leaning not just on theoretical but also on applied social practices, the academic motion of this research agenda is to be more aware on community profiles, demographics and needs assessments as a course to understand a society, and do in-depth researches better and to do in-depth research, organize and set a course of action to provide progressive and sustainable solutions to social issues present in the community being studied.

Vision & Mission



Vision & Mission

The University of Santo Tomas Sociology Department aspires to thrive and progress further in achieving their goals: to apply and execute the disciplines and practices gained from integrated curriculum on both local and international communities. This educational program sets out to produce the brightest students who can perform well their duties and obligations as engaged citizens to the society. Pursuing to continue towards the development of well-rounded individuals and to ensure attainment of a sustainable future.

Ang Departamento ng Sosyolohiya ng Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas ay naglalayong paunlarin at payabungin ang kakayahan na nakuha mula sa edukasyong dapat isagawa sa iba't-ibang komunidad sa buong mundo. Kalakip nito ang paniniwala na ang edukasyong aming ibinabahagi ay nagbubunga ng isang responsableng mag-aaral hindi lamang sa kanyang tahanan kundi na rin sa pamayanan. Ang Departamento ng Sosyolohiya patuloy na magsusumikap na mapag-yabong pa ang kaalaman ng bawat mag-aaral upang matiyak ang kanilang maayos na kinabukasan pati na rin ng lipunan.

The UST Department of Sociology, composed of both professors and the student body from the Faculty of Arts and Letters, are committed to enrich the field of Sociology by the dedication of to study sociological inquiries and analyses. Through our active research agendas, we aim to help, inform, enlighten, and urge the academe field and community masses to immerse themselves towards the sociological issues that happen in the society and to inspire creation of further studies.

Ang Departamento ng Sosyolohiya ng Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas na binubuo ng mga propesor at kalipunan ng mga mag-aaral mula sa Pakultad ng Sining at Letra, ay naglalayong mapagpayaman ang disiplina ng Sosyolohiya sa pagpapaigting ng dedikasyon sa sosyolohikal na pagsisiyasat at pagsusuri. Sa pamamagitan ng aming mga adyendang pangsaliksik, layon naming matulungan ipabatid, maliwanagan, at maunawaan ng mundong akademya at ng masa ang mga isyung sosyolohikal na nagaganap sa lipunan at magsilbing inspirasyon para sa paggawa ng karagdagang pag-aaral.


Level III Accreditation


Administrators and Faculty Members

Asst. Prof. Froilan A. Alipao, MCD

Master of Community Development

Prof. Clarence M. Batan, PhD

Doctor of Philosophy in Sociology

Assoc. Prof. Maria Carinnes P. Alejandria, PhD

Doctor of Philosophy, major in Anthropology

Asst. Prof. Milrose P. Llenas, MA

Master of Arts in Education, major in Social Science Teaching

Asst. Prof. Josephine A. Placido, MA

Master of Arts in Sociology

Asst. Prof. Frederick I. Rey, MA, MS

Master of Science in Sociology

Master of Arts in Creative Writing

Asst. Prof. Rhodora Lynn L. Tababa, MA

Master of Arts in Humanities

Asst. Prof. Antonino IV N. Tobias, MS

Master of Science in Sociology

Notable Alumni

Rosechelen Charity G. Acorda-Adongay 

Bachelor of Arts in Sociology 2011

A 2015 Bachelor of Laws alumna of UST, her field of expertise is Administrative Law. She is a Lecturer (2017 Rules on Administrative Cases on the Civil Service, Sexual Harassment, Statement of Assets, Liabilities and Networth) and is currently working as Attorney V at Civil Service Commission National Capital Region.

Clarence M. Batan, PhD

Bachelor of Arts in Sociology 1995

Clarence M. Batan graduated Bachelor of Arts in Sociology (Magna cum Laude) in University of Santo Tomas – Manila, Philippines; Master of Arts in Sociology in University of the Philippines – Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines and Doctor of Philosophy in Sociology (Dalhousie Unversity – Halifax, Canada). 

He became the Vice President for Asia of the Research Committee 34 – Sociology of Youth of the International Sociological Association (2014-2018); became President of Philippine Sociological Society (2017-2018); and a member of Technical Committee for Sociology of the Philippine Commission of Higher Education (CHED).  Brown University (Research Fellow, 2012 & Visiting Fellow for International Studies, 2013) Providence, Rhode Island, USA made him a postdoctoral fellowship. Dr. Batan became the director of the Research Center for Culture, Education, and Social Issues sa UST (2015-2017). 


His fields of expertise are Sociology of Youth, Education and Work. Currently, he is the head researcher of the The National Catechetical Study (NCS) 2021: Pastoral Action Research and Intervention (PARI) Project, commissioned by Catholic Bishops’ Conference in the Philippines (CBCP) – Episcopal Commission on Catechesis and Catholic Education (ECCCE) to understand the statehood and condition of the​

Catechetical Mission of the Church in the Country. Currently, he is the Coordinator of the Department of Sociology in University of Santo Tomas.

He has two books published:

2010 Batong-bahay: Naratibo ng kahirapan at tagumpay ng isang karaniwang pamilyang Pilipino (Stone house: A Filipino family’s narrative of poverty and success) UST Publishing House, Manila Philippines. [Creative non-fiction about his family] 

2000 TALIM: Mga Kuwento ng Sampung Kabataan (TALIM: Life Histories of Ten Young People) published in Filipino by the Social Research Center, UST. [An advocacy book for rural youths with illustrations. Based on the MA thesis in Sociology, UP Diliman, Quezon City.]

John Philip Bertiz

Bachelor of Arts in Sociology 2009

John Philip Bertiz is a graduate of AB Sociology at The University of Santo Tomas Batch 2009; MS Human Resource Management in 2016. Some of the notable recognitions he received are:

  • 2019 Global Stars of Excellence
  • 2019 Asia Segment Stars of Excellence (Asia LEAD New Graduate Program and Manulife Business Processing Campus Sourcing Team)
  • 2017 Asia Segment Stars of Excellence
  • 2016 Asia Best LinkedIn Influencer for Manulife

His field of expertise is Human Resource and he is currently working at Manulife as the Manager for Campus Recruitment and Sourcing Strategy for Asia.

Vincent C. Leido IV

Bachelor of Arts in Sociology 2010

Vincent C. Leido IV is a graduate of AB Sociology at The University of Santo Tomas Batch 2010; Juris Doctor at Philippine Law School and he is currently taking his MBA in De La Salle University.

His field of expertise are Government Service/Political Affairs. Leido is currently the Deputy Chief for Political Affairs for the Office of Sen. Grace Poe (Senate of the Philippines).

History of Philippine and UST Sociology

The development of Sociology in the Philippines can be described as a cycle of repeated stillbirths. While it traces its early roots during Spanish colonisation, the discipline’s formal introduction to the country happened during American colonisation (Weightman 1987). Despite this, the development of sociology in the Philippines is rather slow. According to Alan Hunt (1978), the slowness of the development is attributed to the fact that Sociology is not common in the United States in its early years and was given low priority in the Academic Institutions in the United States and so similarly, the discipline received similar treatment in the Philippines (Weightman 1987). 

In 1908, the American authorities of higher education established the University of The Philippines and began to offer and teach sociology in 1908 (Weightman 1987). The discipline was then combined with the department of anthropology under Henry Otley Beyer. Shortly after, Americans attempted to revitalize sociology separate from anthropology by engaging to another cultural anthropologist, John De Young due to Beyer’s unwillingness and inability to develop sociology (Weightman 1987). After the successful re-establishment of sociology as a discipline of its own, De Young left the country in 1952 and a few months later, Fulbright Professor Chester Hunt arrived and made large contributions to the development of Philippine sociology (Weightman 1987). With his enthusiastic pushing, in August 1953, Philippine Sociological Society was founded. During the same period, Hunt also helped in establishing Philippine Sociological Review (Weightman 1987). Today, both Philippine Sociological Society and Philippine Sociological Review lead the foundation of Philippine Sociology.

Meanwhile, the history of emergence of Sociology in the University of Santo Tomas is a continuous debate among sociologists. While early data presented  the university as the first to offer sociology among academic institutions in the Philippines, such history of origin was debunked because of lack of source and credibility. No documents served as evidence verifying the claim that Sociology was offered as a course in the University of Santo Tomas in 1896 however, the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters was established in the said year. On the other hand, teaching Sociology in the university developed after World War II—between the 1950s and 1960s—as it became a part of general Social Science courses. Sociology then became a full major and specialization with Undergraduate Degrees to Masters and PhD Degrees. And in 1964, the university established the Faculty of Arts and Letters (Batan and Samaco 2013).

In 1967, the University of Santo Tomas eventually formally established the Department of Sociology in the College of Liberal Arts (Batan and Samaco 2013). Years later, in 2006, undergraduate degree in Sociology was changed into “Bachelor of Arts in Sociology” from “Bachelor of Arts – Major in Sociology” which had the curricula changed to allow more major Sociology subjects in the first two years (Batan and Samaco 2013).

At present, the Sociology program in the University of Santo Tomas centers in sociological theories and perspectives as well research methodologies to mold students to be quality and competent social researchers informed by local and global economic, political, ecological, and socio-cultural trends. This program also aims to produce graduates to be an instrument to the production, interpretation, transmission, and application of knowledge through social research that will enable them to address social issues and problems (University of Santo Tomas, 2016).


Ang kasaysayan ng sosyolohiya sa Pilipinas ay maituturing na isang siklo ng paulit-ulit na “kapanganakan”. Habang ang mga naunang datos nito ay makikita natin noong kolonisasyon ng mga Kastila, ang pormal na introduksyon ng disiplina sa bansa ay nangyari noong kolonisasyon ng mga Amerikano. Ganun pa man, ang pag-inam ng sosyolohiya sa bansa ay mabagal. Ayon kay Alan Hunt (1978), ang matumal na pag-inam ay dulot ng kadahilanang ang sosyolohiya ay hindi masyadong nabibigyang pansin sa Estados Unidos at hindi gaanong binibigyang halaga sa mga akademikong institusyon kung kaya naman ang kaparehas na pagtrato ay makikita rin sa Pilipinas (Weightman 1987).


Taong 1908 nang itinatag ng mga Amerikanong awtoridad sa mataas na edukasyon ang Unibersidad ng Pilipinas (Weightman 1987). Kasabay nito ay sinimulan rin ng unibersidad na mag-alok at magturo ng sosyolohiya noong 1911 kung saan ito ay isinama sa departamento ng antropolohiya sa pangunguna ni Henry Otley Beyer (Weightman 1987). Matapos nito ay minabuti ng mga awtoridad sa mataas na edukasyon na ihiwalay ang sosyolohiya sa antropolohiya sa pamamagitan ng pagtalaga kay John De Young dulot ng kawalang kapasidad ni Beyer na pagyabungin ang sosyolohiya (Weightman 1987). Matapos nito at ang matagumpay na pagtatayo sa sosyolohiya bilang indibidwal na disiplina ay tuluyan nang umalis si De Young noong 1952. Ilang buwan matapos lisanin ni De Young ang bansa, sa parehas na taon ay dumating si Chester Hunt, propesor mula sa Fulbright na kalaunan ay nagkaroon ng malaking gampanin sa pag-unlad ng sosyolohiya sa Pilipinas. Sa kaniyang pangunguna ay itinatag ang Philippine Sociological Society noong Agosto 1953. Matapos naman nito ay itinatag ang Philippine Sociological Review, opisyal na tagapaglathala ng mga pananaliksik sa sosyolohiya. Sa kasalukyan, ang Philippine Sociological Society at Philippine Sociological Review ang pangunahing tagapagtaguyod at pundasyon ng sosyolohiya sa Pilipinas.


Samantala, ang kasaysayan ng pag-usbong ng sosyolohiya sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas ay hindi malinaw at patuloy pa rin pinagdedebatehan ng mga sosyolohista. Habang ang mga naunang datos ay sinasabing ang unibersidad ang unang nag-alok ng sosyolohiya sa Pilipinas, ang teoryang ito ay hindi na tinatanggap pa dahil sa kakulangan ng letihimong pagkukunan at kredibilidad. Walang kahit anong uring dokumentong nagsilbing ebidensya na nagpapatunay sa pahayag na ang Sosyolohiya’y naging isang kurso sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas noong 1896 ngunit, itinatag naman ang Faculty of Philosophy and Letters sa nasabing taon. Sa kabilang dako, ang pagtuturo ng Sosyolohiya sa unibersidad ay lumago pagkatapos ng Ikalawang Digmaang Daigdig—pagitan ng mga taong 1950 at 1960—dahil naging parte ito ng general Social Science na mga kurso. Ang Sosyolohiya ay naging ganap na full major at specialization na may Undergraduate Degrees hanggang Masters at PhD Degrees (Batan and Samaco 2013).

Noong 1967, ang Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas ay pormal na itinatag ang Department of Sociology sa College of Liberal Arts. Ilang taong nakalipas, noong 2006, ang undergraduate degree sa Sosyolohiya ay napalitan ng “Bachelor of Arts in Sociology” mula sa “Bachelor of Arts – Major in Sociology”. Dahil dito, nagbago ang kurikulum para sa nasabing program upang magbigay ng dagdag na major Sociology subjects sa unang dalawang taon (Batan and Samaco 2013).

Sa kasalukuyan, ang programang Sosyolohiya sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas ay sumesentro sa mga teoretika at perspektibong sosyolohika, pati na rin sa paraan ng pananaliksik upang hubugin ang mga mag-aaral para maging isang mananaliksik na may galing at kakayahan na nagbibigay-kaalaman mula sa lokal at global na ekonomika, politikal, ekolohikal, at sosyo-kultural trends. Ito rin ay naglalayong makapagtapos ng mga mag-aaral upang maging isang instrumento sa produksyon, interpretasyon, transmisyon, at aplikasyon ng kaalaman sa pamamaraan ng panlipunang saliksik na makatutulong sa pagharap ng isyu at problemang panlipunan (University of Santo Tomas 2016).

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