The Thomasian identity is rooted in Catholic faith. This section presents the Catholic faith and inspiration that the University of Santo Tomas leans on—the Virgin Mary, the saints and martyrs, the Pope, the clergy, as well as the modern-day Christians who try every day to follow in the footsteps of Jesus Christ.
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The rich history of the Catholic Church and the Order of Preachers have blessed the Dominican family, particularly the University of Santo Tomas, with a wellspring of inspiration in the form of men and women, saints and martyrs, whose lives of faith, are worthy of emulation. Some of these saints and martyrs hold a special place in the hearts of Thomasians, who look up to them as the Patrons and Patronesses of the University and the units within them.
The Order of Preachers
Close to four centuries into the Order’s existence, one of the Dominican brethren, Manila Archbishop Miguel de Benavides, O.P., willed the establishment of a colegio, where would-be priests will learn about theology, grammar, and the arts. This will was made before Benavides died in July 1605, and was finally realized on April 28, 1611, with the founding of the Colegio del Santissimo Rosario, later the Colegio de Santo Tomas, and the present-day University of Santo Tomas.
Birth of the Dominican Province of the Philippines
Fr. Rolando V. de la Rosa, O.P. (2016)
The year 1970 marked the eighth centenary of the birth of St. Dominic. On April 30, 1970, the Master of the Order, Fr. Aniceto Fernandez, O.P., sent a circular to all Dominican Provinces, convents, monasteries, and sisters’ congregations, inviting all Dominicans to observe with due solemnity and fervor that significant occasion. In the Philippines, the celebrations were inaugurated on August 4, 1970, and were to end on December 31, 1971. Within this yearlong festival, two important events in the Order happened: the declaration of St. Catherine of Siena as Doctor of the Church on October 4, 1970, and the establishment of the forty-first Province of the Dominican Order, which would climax the celebrations.
On December 8, 1971, at about 9:30 in the morning, the Mass began with the Master of the Order himself as the main celebrant. Dominicans from all over the Philippines, as well as from other countries, graced the solemn occasion. In his homily, the Master of the Order recommended two things which he believed would guarantee the success of the new Province in continuing the glorious history of the Mother Province:
i – a great fidelity to the Church, to the Pope, to the hierarchy, to the Master of the Order, as had been exemplified in St. Dominic himself, our Founder, and;
ii – a great fidelity to the new constitution of the Order and to the decrees of the Second Vatican Council.
The ceremony proper for the inauguration of the new Province began immediately after the Mass. First came the reading of the Decree of Establishment of the Dominican Province of the Philippines. This decree provides information about the new Province:
- At the time of its establishment, the new Province had forty-six Filipino priests, seven Spanish priests by reason of assignment, thirty-two professed clerical brothers, and fifteen professed cooperator-brothers.
- The following convents (and institutions attached to these) and mission territory were given to the new Province: Sto. Domingo Convent, Convent of San Juan de Letran and Letran College, Holy Rosary Convent in Manaoag, Holy Rosary Convent in Jaro, Iloilo, Convent of St. Raymond de Peñafort and Aquinas University in Legazpi, and Babuyanes Islands of the Prelature Nullius of Batanes-Babuyanes.
- The Province of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary retained the following: Holy Rosary Convent in San Juan del Monte, Holy Rosary House in Baguio City, St. Dominic House in Basco, Batanes Island, Binondo Parish, and other mission outposts in Batanes Island of the Prelature Nullius of Batanes-Babuyanes.
- The Province of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary may establish a convent within the territory of the new Province without the necessity of obtaining the previous consent of the latter, although there is need to inform first the Prior Provincial about it, and provided it will not interfere with the ministry of the new Province.
- The University of Santo Tomas shall be subject of a special statute approved by the Master of the Order.
After the reading of the decree, the Master of the Order announced the appointment of Fr. Rogelio Alarcon, O.P. as the first Provincial of the Dominican Province of the Philippines. Father Alarcon accepted his appointment in public, as provided for by custom, after which he made the Profession of Faith before the Master of the Order, as a manifestation of his trust in Divine Providence. After the Credo, all the brethren of the new Province approached the altar, and in one impressive expression of their allegiance to the new Provincial, they made the venia, the traditional sign of obedience to the Dominican superior. The Provincial then went on to deliver his inaugural address. After his talk, both the Spanish and Filipino Dominicans sang the triumphant hymn, Te Deum, and the ageless Marian antiphon Salve Regina, their voices blending into a melody of hope and intercession.
The Pontifical Universities are Roman Catholic universities under the authority of the Holy See. These are licensed to grant academic degrees in the sacred faculties, such as Canon Law, Philosophy, and Sacred Theology, in the bachelor’s licentiate, and doctorate levels. Studies in the said institutions normally address the Christian revelation and disciplines correlative to the evangelical mission of the Catholic Church. High moral standards and discipline are expected of students, and the teachings are also equivalent to the apostolic constitution of the Catholic Church.
The University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines, was conferred the title “Pontifical” in 1902 by Pope Leo XIII. In the Philippines, UST remains to be the only university accorded such status.
The Vatican. (2013, Apr. 15). The Pontifical Universities. Vatican.com. http://vatican.com/articles/info/the_pontifical_universities-a31 (accessed on December 26, 2015)
Villarroel, F. (2009). A History of the University of Santo Tomas – Volume II. Manila: UST Publishing House.
How UST became a Pontifical University
How UST became a Pontifical University
Fr. Fidel E. Villarroel, O.P. (2009). A History of the University of Santo Tomas – Volume II.
The Holy Father sent Monsignor Giovanni Battista Guidi [on a mission to the Philippines]. A man of long experience in the Vatican diplomatic service, he arrived in the Philippines in November 1902. Guidi brought with him the Apostolic Constitution Quae Mari Sinico, signed in Rome by Pope Leo XIII on September 17, 1902 and which he promulgated in the Manila Cathedral on the feast of the Immaculate Conception, December 9, 1902. This document was of unprecedented importance because it introduced great reforms of far-reaching consequences to the local Church.
The relevant topics discussed were: the creation of four new dioceses, the need to increase the number of the native clergy, the foundation of conciliar seminaries, the importance of the Catholic missions and norms for the organization of the parishes, etc. One important section in the document dealt with the education of the youth and the programs of university studies in Manila.
After the revolution, the University of Santo Tomas was on the brink of extinction because of some decrees passed by the Malolos Congress and the refusal of the new political regime to recognize its curricular programs and degrees. Nevertheless, it eventually saw the threats of extinction vanish, thanks to the support of the highest authority of the Church.
Guidi served a copy of Quae Mari Sinico to the Dominicans who accepted it with great joy and exuberance because Section VII of the document contains a Papal declaration that conferred upon the University of Santo Tomas the title of Pontifical University and recognized its academic degrees as having the same value as those of other pontifical universities in the world. The UST Press reprinted the document in December 1902, not only in original Latin, but also in five other languages: Spanish, English, Tagalog, Ilocano, and Visayan. The pertinent section of the Quae Mari Sinico read:
The Bishops should be concerned not only with the Seminaries, but also with the other young students [in country] who are likewise entrusted to their care and solicitude. It is therefore their duty to see to it, with all diligence, that the youths who attend the public schools are not deprived of religious training. In order that this be properly attended to, let the Bishops take effective measures that the books used [in these schools] be not tainted with error.
Since we are speaking, of public schools, We cannot let this opportunity pass without bestowing the much-deserved praise on the great [University of Santo Tomas], founded by the Dominicans under the authority of Innocent X. This school has always shone in the integrity of its doctrine, in the excellence of its doctors, and has rendered great service [to the Church and country]. Therefore, We desire that all Bishops look upon it with favor, and We and Our Successors take it under Our patronage.
Hence, We confirm in all their plenitude the privileges and honors conferred on the [University of Santo Tomas] by the Roman Pontiffs Innocent X and XI and Clement XII, and We endow it with the title of PONTIFICAL UNIVERSITY, hereby declaring that the academic degrees that are conferred by it. Shall have the same values as those of other Pontifical Universities.
Since the beginning of the 13th century, some important universities were distinguished by the Church for their excellent quality of education. History attests that “of the 52 universities founded before 1400, there were 29 created by Papal decree, and 10 others by decrees jointly issued by the Roman Pontiffs, emperors and reigning princes. The most famous among these were the universities of Paris, Oxford, Cambridge, Bologna and Salamanca.” But despite their establishment by Papal authorization, those universities were not referred to as pontifical. In fact, with the passing of the centuries some of them lost their Catholic character because of the Protestant Reformation.
A look at the list of the present pontifical universities will illustrate the singular privilege granted to the University of Santo Tomas by the apostolic constitution Quae Mari Sinico in 1902. The 2000 edition of the Annuario Pontifico, the annual official directory of the Holy See, lists all Catholic and/or pontifical institutes of higher learning, grouping them into two categories: Roman Athenaeums and Catholic Universities. Only 24 are called pontifical, and of these, six are located at Rome (Gregorian University, Lateran University, Urbaanum Angelicum, Salesianum, and the Holy Cross University); three are in Europe; fourteen in Latin America; and only one in Asia: the University of Santo Tomas in Manila.
The first university to be officially granted the title of pontifical is the Gregorian University in Rome. Although founded in 1551, it was only in 1873 that Pope Pius IX elevated it into a pontifical university. Among the other 23 pontifical universities, the first to have been conferred the title in the 20th Century is the University of Santo Tomas of Manila, through the Apostolic Constitution, Quae Mari Sinico, in 1902.
It must be pointed out that the University of Santo Tomas has been called pontifical much earlier than 1902, and not only once but hundred of times. References to it as Royal and Pontifical occurred frequently in printed speeches and sermons delivered by Dominican rectors and professors before 1902. Three statutes of the university drafted in the years 1734, 1785, and 1859 bore the title: Estatutos de la Real y Pontificia Universidad de Santo Tomas de Manila. The various inaugural addresses delivered during the opening of the school year also referred to the university as pontifical. But this was due to the fact that the university has always enjoyed the patronage and support of the Papacy, as evident in Quae Mari Sinico itself, where Pope Leo XIII clearly stated that he was confirming in all their plenitude, the privileges and honors conferred on the University of Santo Tomas by Roman Pontiffs. So, although papal documents always referred to the University of Santo Tomas as universitas or as academia, or lyceum, and not as pontifica, it is safe to say that in the mind of the Popes, the University of Santo Tomas has always been pontifical in character, and what Pope Leo XIII did in 1902 was simply to make the title official.
Catholic University of the Philippines
Papal Visits to the University of Santo Tomas
2015 – January 18 Pope Francis
The most recent visit by the Supreme Pontiff was held on January 18, 2015, with the incumbent Pope, Francis, visiting the University of Santo Tomas as part of his five-day Apostolic Visit to the Philippines.
1995 – January 13 – Pope John Paul II
Pope John Saint Paul II made his second and final visit to the University of Santo Tomas on January 13, 1995, on the occasion of the International Youth Forum, held in conjunction with the World Youth Day celebration.
1981 – February 18 – Pope John Paul II
1970 – November 28 – Pope Paul VI